- On June 8th and June 9th, Mario Pagliaro gave two invited
lectures at the Zelinsky Institute
of Organic Chemistry
(ZIOC) of the Russian Academy of
Sciences. Both lectures aroused much interest in the audience and ended
with a vigorous discussion lasting about one hour. After the first lecture,
Italy's scholar met with Russia's
academicians ZIOC Director Mikhail P.
Professor Valentine P. Ananikov
and world-renowned organic chemist Professor Irina P.
(watch the video and photogallery
"Bring organic chemistry within sol-gel glasses"
"Exactly 20 years ago I
was sitting in a laboratory in Jerusalem, listening to a quick lecture
of David Avnir,
who turns 70
he started his first lecture entitled
Making Green Chemistry Possible".
"David was as usual very clear: 'We've a simple programme: to bring
chemistry from solution to the inner porosity of sol-gel glasses'.
"Now, there are more several million organic molecules, and this may
far too ambitious programme. Yet, if we look at what we can do with
sol-gel entrapped catalysts, we notice that a huge class of reactions
can already be transferred to said inner porosity. Not only in the
laboratory, but also in industry.
"Today, I will present you
selected examples of some key organic chemistry reactions that are
mediated by these materials, getting rid of by-products, under very
"Let me please start from money and from we
wrote in Angewandte with Cristina Della Pina and Joaquim Teles, a
prominent chemist at world's leading chemical company. Chemists develop
new catalysts and catalytic processes which drastically reduce or even
eliminate waste altogether.
"The fine chemical industry is
driven by product, and not process, innovation. Hence, industry’s
managers will say yes to
catalysis if the new catalyst meets one
out of two requirements: either it enables the development of an
entirely new process with different raw materials and breakthrough
economics; or the new catalyst offering a moderate economic
improvement, can be developed as a drop-in for existing plant and
"This is exactly what ORMOSIL-entrapped catalysts do: They often
provide breakthrough economic improvement,
and they can easily be used as drop-in solutions. And this is the
reason whey they were commercialized.
"Their features and benefits are evident: the ceramic nature ensures
unprecedented chemical and physical stability; the huge surface area
and accessible inner
mesoporosity allows high dispersion of the catalytic species and
excellent applicability to flow chemistry, whereas the sol-gel process
carried out in liquid phase enables true reproducibility in the production of
materials of high and accurate catalyst loading.
"Finally, the sol-gel encapsulation phenomenon so well described by
Avnir in a now classical 1995
paper explains both their high air and moisture stability and
exceptional catalytic activity: sol-gel materials, indeed, are true chemical sponges.
"Listing even a fraction of all sol-gel entrapped materials doing
catalysis would require three or four lectures. Hence, I will give you
just one or two examples describing the performance of
ORMOSIL-entrapped metal nanoparticles, ion pairs, photocatalytic
oxides, organocatalyst and metal complexes.
"The first example is the broad scope and selectivity of
Pt(0), an ORMOSIL matrix encapsulating Pt
nanoparticles prepared using the method jointly developed with Rosaria Ciriminna, Giovanni
Palmisano, Valerica Pandarus and Francois Béland back in 2011, in
mediating the hydrogenation
of different nitro compounds.
"The material selectively affords complete or very high yields of
functionalized anilines under hydrogen balloon, at room temperature
conditions in methanol solvent with 0.5-1 mol% Pt. In comparison to
other commercial Pt heterogeneous
Pt(0) is much more
reactive, with complete conversion after 0.5 h with just 0.5 mol% metal amount.
Furthermore, selectivity is significantly higher with only 4% aniline
formed as by-product, and no other secondary product. Leaching of Pt and Si is minimal, whereas the catalyst reused in 7 consecutive cycles
affords complete substrate conversion with 99% selectivity even in the last cycle.
"The very same catalyst can be successfully employed in modest 0.5-1
mol % amount to electively mediates the hydrosilylation of different olefins
at room temperature or at 65 °C, depending on the substrate. This
organosilicon synthetic cycle, because the SiliaCat catalyst itself is made out of an
alkyl-trialkoxysilane in its turn is obtained via olefin
hydrosilylation. What is also relevant from a practical viewpoint is
that the process scaled up 50
times retains both the high selectivity and conversion degree observed
in the 2 mmol scale reaction
"Similar excellent results are obtained with SiliaCat Pd(0) enabling the selective hydrogenation
of nitro compounds in the presence of different functionalities
including carboxylic acid, ester, amide, and halide groups under 1 atm
hydrogen at room temperature in
batch. Showing the first
evidence of the potential of these materials in flow chemistry,
however, the hydrogenation using ammonium formate under flow affords
full selective conversion in 14 min only, versus 60 min required for
maximum 95% selectivity under batch conditions.
"Another example, very important from the viewpoint of public health,
is that SiliaCat Pd(0) is
a chemoselective and highly efficient catalyst for the hydrogenation of
a wide variety of vegetable
oils in a simple hydrogen balloon at room temperature promoting at ultralow 0.1 mol% load the full hydrogenation of vegetable oils with no cis/trans isomerization and with
negligible leaching of valued Pd.
"You all know that in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils with Ni-based
catalysts some unsaturated bonds are unselectively converted to an
unnatural trans position.
What is perhaps less known is that the combined results of metabolic
and epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that trans fatty
acid intake is causally related to risk of coronary disease,
sudden death from cardiac causes, and diabetes.
"It is also remarkable here that Russia's scientists have investigated
the use of palldium catalysts for margarine
production since the early 1960s up to Murzin and
co-workers who reported
in 2008 successful results using a over a Pd carbon nanocomposite catalyst at margarine plants in Zaporogskiy, Lvov
and Kazan, demonstrating excellent behavior in industrial conditions in
the selective hydrogenation of sunflower oil.
"The fine chemical industry prefers drop-in solutions. One is the
replacement of any commercial catalyst currently used for the
production of squalane via
squalene hydrogenation, with newly developed spherical
The work is currently ending peer-review at an ACS journal. Let me just
show you that the new catalyst outperformed several commercial
catalysts in the solvent-free
fully chemoselective hydrogenation of squalene, both of vegetable or
"Getting to gold catalysis, the issue
is very simple. For gold catalysis
to become ubiquitous in the fine chemical and
pharmaceutical industry as Pd catalysis is today, recyclable catalysts using
an ultra-low amount of gold will have to be developed. In year 2000,
indeed, gold price was less than $300/oz, whereas in October 2014, the
price had risen to $1246/oz - when, for comparison, the price of Pd was
"One such catalyst could be the
Au(0) jointly introduced with Béland and
Pandarus in Canada and Ilharco and Fidalgo in Portugal in 2015.
"The catalyst successfully mediates the selective oxidation of alcohols
either under solvent-free
oxygen or with hydrogen
peroxide in biphasic system. Remarkably, ending the 2015 article we
were anticipating forthcoming
application of this new material to different
applicative domains of chemistry, including environmental
"Hence, we were happily surprised that it took Israeli colleagues a few more months
report highly successful application of this new class of
materials to the dehalogenation of brominated disinfection byproducts
typically produced during water disinfection with chlorine, owing
to trace amounts of bromide.
The catalyst successfully catalyzes the debromination of all brominated
products affording complete conversion into valued succinic or acetic
acid. Above all, the catalyst is stable and reusable. Let me thus please
emphasize what Ariel's University Dr Albo and the other Israeli colleagues write in the next
September issue of
Chimica Oggi - Chemistry Today I've got the privilege to edit:
“The applicability of a new technology
is highly dependent on the cost
effectiveness of the suggested process. This is even more
relevant regarding environmental technologies due to relatively low
market values characteristic to this field. The ability to obtain
reproducible catalysts by using sol-gel technology, the low catalytic
amount of gold used in the preparation of the matrices and the
stability of the catalyst are important advancements towards the
implementation of highly active noble metal nanoparticles in water
Dr Pagliaro continued explaining that the selective oxidation of
alcohols to carbonyls and to carboxylic acids, a key process in the production of fine
chemicals, for decades has been carried out in industry using highly
toxic, hazardous and potentially highly polluting Cr(VI).
"Today alcohol selective
oxidation in industry is very often carried out catalytically using nitroxyl
radical TEMPO, a stable radical species first synthesized in
Russia by Lebedev and Kazarnowskii in 1959. Oxidation either uses NaOCl with potassium bromide as primary oxidant or
aerobically with a copper(I) co-catalyst. Conceived in the late 1990s, SiliaCat TEMPO was the first sol-gel catalyst
commercialized in the early 2000s.
"The solid catalyst can be successfully used for the oxidation of a
wide variety of alcohols under batch or flow conditions. However,
whereas under batch it takes 1 h to achieve maximum 97% benzyl alcohol
at 0 °C requiring
the use of KBr as co-catalyst,
under flow it takes 0.3 min to
get full alcohol conversion to pure benzaldehyde (100% selectivity) at
room temperature and without KBr. For comparison, the same oxidative
reaction over resin-immobilized TEMPO under flow still requires cooling
at 0 °C and the use of KBr for optimal yields and selectivity.
example is ORMOSIL-entrapped
The ion pair TPAP encapsulated in silica employed in the
aerobic oxidation of alcohols is modestly active, but the activity
rapidly increases with the amount of methyl groups in the ORMOSIL
matrix; with the fully methylated ORMOSIL showing activity comparable
of homogeneous TPAP.
"Shortly afterwards, along with Sandro Campestrini from Padua
University we developed FluoRuGel
, namely TPAP encapsulated in a fluorinated silica matrix which
showed high reactivity and unique kinetics in alcohol oxidative
dehydrogenation in supercritical carbon dioxide.
"Contrary to TPAP
in solution where it progressively loses
activity due to aggregation of the intermediate ruthenate species, the FluoRuGel atalyst is smoothly recyclable as the sol-gel encapsulation of perruthenate in the inner
porosity of the organosilica matrix entirely prevents aggregation.
example of an encapsulated metal complex is SiliaCat DPP-Pd, namely the ORMOSIL-entrapped Pd(II) complex synthesized from a
diphenylphosphine-functionalized silane and methyltrethoxysilane
developed by Pandarus and Béland showing high selective acivity in a
wide variety of C-C cross-coupling reactions.
"In 2013, we used it to green the Valsartan synthesis
scaling up a key Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction affording 100% yield
in coupled product in 1 h. The catalyst in the batch reaction was not
recyclable, but it was practically leach-proof while it enables the much faster synthesis of another sartan, Telmisartan, under flow in which the
residence time is less than 5 min, as reported by Gupton and co-workers in 2015.
"Kappe's team recently conducted a comparative study
of the most common immobilized diarylphosphine- and
triarylphosphine-based palladium catalysts used in C–C coupling
reactions by carrying out two model Mizoroki-Heck and Suzuki–Miyaura
reactions in an X-Cube flow reactor.
DPP-Pd showed far superior leaching resistance and stability with
respect to the other three catalysts, with very low levels of leached
Pd (332 μg for the Heck and 39 μg for the
Suzuki reaction), even though the catalyst showed formation of
Pd black upon reaction.
"As put by Alcázar
and co-workers who used it for a variety of cross-coupling reaction
under flow with remarkable performance stability on stream, the
DPP-Pd catalyst 'costs less than other commonly
used palladium sources, such as palladium acetate or Pearlman's
catalyst, does not require catalyst separation from the product,
drastically reducing solvent utilization, while providing increased
yields of valued cross-coupled products at a much faster rate than any
homogeneously catalyzed process in a batch reactor'.
"Getting therefore back to the premise of this lecture, this a
technology that managers will consider for scale-up and practical
utilization because these outcomes directly translate into dramatically
reduced cost due to yield
improvement, lack of product contamination, reduced solvent utilization and waste treatment cost, and shorter time
for product delivery.
"The last example is the sol-gel
entrapped photocatalyst called SiliaSun. Both amorphous silica and
organosilica are transparent glasses, which makes possible
visible-light photocatalysis through the inner porosity of these materials. In the case of nanostructured bismuth tungstate, the encapsulation of the photocatalytic species greatly
contributes to the improved separation
of photogenerated electron–hole pairs under visible light irradiation, as shown by the photoluminiscence
intensity of silica-entrapped tungstate being much lower than that of
Along with Professor Yi-Jun Xu at
Fuzhou University we first showed greatly improved catalytic activity
in the aerobic selective oxidation of glycerol to DHA embedding
the the short-gap semiconductor in a 10% methyl-modified silica matrix.
Next week ChemComm publishes the results of the
sunlight-driven photo-oxidation of trans-ferulic
and trans-cinnamic acid dissolved in water with air as primary oxidant over this catalyst,
affording in one-pot unprecedented yields of valuable products such as vanillin, benzaldehyde, benzoic
and vanillic acid.
"We have suggested mechanistic explanations for all our findings, which
are included in the articles mentioned in the slides.
"I should mention too many people whose assistance has been
instrumental in developing this part of our research. They are shown in
this slide. Let me please dedicate
this lecture to two women in science: Rosaria
Ciriminna in Italy and Valerica
Pandarus in Canada. Without these two excellent chemists little or nothing of
what you have heard of today would have been possible.
"Finally, to show you a first link between Moscow and Palermo, may I remind that Dmitry Mendeleev
considered his friend Stanislao
Cannizzaro 'my immediate predecessor'. Not many Italians are aware
that Professor Cannizzaro was a chemist from Palermo, where he carried
out the experiments that led him to assess several atomic weights".
The inevitable solar economy
In the second lecture ("Chemistry
the Bioeconomy: From Discussion
to Action") Dr Pagliaro offered a critical overview of the
starting from the oil,
wealth and population conundrum
After a brief
presentation of the European Union
strategy, he suggested
arguments for which the solar
"Along with Professor Meneguzzo in Florence, we have
identified the relationship between wealth and population, and that
between wealth and total energy consumption. If global population will
keep growing along the current trajectory, in 2025 about 800 million
people will add to current population, requiring more
million additional barrels
over current oil production levels.
"We simply do not know where to
take all this
"Hence, the solar economy is the only
option we have do avoid
"Biomass will replace oil as raw
material of the global chemical
industry. I do not have time to treat the biorefinery topic, and
recommend you to read the spectacular insight
on the second generation biorefinery of Professor Percival Zhang, who lately attended the SuNEC conference in Sicily.
In the transition to the bioeconomy, chemistry has an absolutely
First pillar, solar energy
"Let me start from solar
energy. As put it by Varadi, a pioneer in solar energy, very few people
realize that without the invention of solar power many things we are
using today such as cell phones, TV, internet, global weather service,
the Glonass and Gps systems, and manned space stations would not be
centuries ago, Dmitry
Mendeleev said to the Czar that burning oil to make energy
equivalent to firing up banknotes in the kitchen stove
', continued Dr
Pagliaro. "Yet, for more than a
century hydroelectric and nuclear power have been the only two
"All has changed in the last twenty years, with
an unexpected boom in renewable energy, especially wind and solar
that will shortly change the
global energy scenario.
"For example, in India two weeks ago solar
electricity was priced at 3.7 $cents/kWh, which
is lower than the current
wholesale coal power price of
4 cents per
detail, the owners of a 500 MW solar park agreed to build
the plant in 12 months and sell the electricity to the Government at this flat tariff for
"This shows you not only how cheap, but also how reliable is
this technology. India now knows it very well, and the Government just cancelled
orders for huge coal fired power plants: 14 GW, equivalent to
14 nuclear power stations.
"Let me show you also how renewable energy ends the electricity
business. Italy, a small
country in terms of geography but a large one from the industrial
viewpoint, currently hosts
20 GW of installed solar photovoltaic power. The country in
2016 demanded 310 billion of kWh, out of which 106 came
from renewable energy
sources. Correspondingly, the wholesale
price of electricity went down
from 7.48 cents per kWh as of 2007 to 4.28
cents in 2016. And the same happened
in cloudy Germany where the installed solar park exceeds 40 GW: twice that of Italy.
"And this is just the beginning of the solar economy. Hence, utilities
have only two business options left: start selling kilowattohours to
the owners of electric vehicles, and installing 'PV +
systems' to their customer premises.
"Storage of electricity means Li-ion batteries, which also means
electric mobility. Again, just one example: 2013 in China saw the sale
of 1,672 electric buses. Last year, the figure increased to 116,000, namely almost two orders of magnitude growth in less than three years. The city of Shenzhen is planning to an all electric fleet
of 15,000 buses by the end of 2017. This year!
technology works and has been developed by chemists, including the
of China's and world's largest Li-ion battery maker. I recommend you to
read his story in the book chapter mentioned in the slides.
"Last year I gave a
lecture on solar
energy to young
them how the head of Rusnano, a Russia's government company charged to
support business in nanotechnology,
asked a scientist suggesting to
provide support for start manufacturing solar
panels in Russia, to come back when the price of solar electricity
would have gone below that of nuclear electricity.
"That moment has long come,
and now Russia has an excellent maker
of solar PV modules financed
exactly by Rusnano.
Second pillar, bioproducts from biomass
nature of the
environmental and energy crises"
Dr Pagliaro added "requires
us to accelerate international collaboration for the transition to a
true bioeconomy based on renewable energy and renewable raw materials
originating from biomass, and in particular from agriculture, forestry, food and fish processing
Along with research, Pagliaro's team
Research Council in
Sicily is engaged in advancing
in sustainability, for which it has developed innovative
international courses on nanochemistry,
energy and energy
"May I give you just a few
of valued added bioproducts obtainable from agriculture or fishing
waste for which we need new green chemistry processes which, indeed,
being invented and industrialized.
"The first is pectin, the most
valued natural hydrocolloid,
industrially obtained from citrus peel and to a lower extent apple
pomace. Traditionally employed as gelling agent for jam, it has
of applications as emulsifying, stabilizing and gelling
agent, as well as active ingredient in numerous cosmetic and
nutraceutical products. The world
market exceeds $1.6 billion and is
growing quickly. The demand is sensibly higher than the offer and over
the past five years the price has doubled, to over $20/kg.
"The industrial extraction process is based on hydrolysis with
mineral acids, followed by
precipitation with organic solvent. In 1991,
following new environmental regulation, US pectin producers exported all
remaining pectin plants to Mexico, whereas in Soviet times a number of
facilities were producing pectin (from apple and sugar beet) in Russia. All
plants were subsequently closed and now Russia imports $90 million worth of pectin each month, with a
new 1,000 tonnes/year pectin plant being erected in the Belgorod Region.
"A similar trend is observed for citrus essential oils (EOs): booming demand, insufficient supply and ever higher prices.
"Along with Professors Cravotto in Italy and Ilharco in Portugal, we have developed an eco-friendly, solvent-free
process which enables
the concomitant isolation of pectin and essential oils (EOs) from citrus peel as well as from
different citrus fruit parts.
"Not only very high yields of pectin and essential oils are
obtained, but we also discovered that using different
fruit parts -- outer skin, peel, and waste -- as
sources for pectin and EO affords different bioproducts. For
extracted from the exocarp contain higher amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes, whereas
those extracted from the exo-/mesocarp are richer in flavone and
"Another example are olive
biophenols: powerful bioactive compounds exerting multiple health
benefits. Tens of nutraceutical and cosmetic products
using olive biophenols as active ingredients are already available on the
"We have recently shown that these
natural phenolics are suitable for large-scale replacement
phenols, sulfites and other synthetic antioxidants and
antimicrobials in foodstuffs and beverages, transforming an health
issue into an opportunity for
"For example, Spanish researchers two years ago showed that frying
vegetables in olive oil increases the amount of phenolic compounds
in fried vegetables. Hence, the opportunity to replace toxic TBHQ
(tert-butyl hydroquinone) in hydrogenated canola oil used to fry chips
with olive biophenol extracts.
"Sicily grows olive orchards since more than 2,500 years, and still the
production of olive mill waste water continues to be a serious
environmental problem, with several oil mills being forced to close every year
due to water and soil pollution.
"In 2016 we helped a company to
adapt the biophenol integral extraction protocol developed by Roberto Crea in the early 2000s for the three-phase
olive mill, to a large two-phase mill operating in Sicily.
"The new set-up allowed extensive
recovery of olive phenolics, transforming previous waste into a
biophenol extract of unprecedented quality and in a source
of revenues for the milling company, while eliminating a source of
potential pollution altogether. Italy's Labor Minister and the vice Minister of Science visited the plant last November congratulating the Research Council for supporting the new bioeconomy initiative.
"The third example are supplements containing long-chain omega-3 fatty
acids, namely a $4 billion market
growing quickly due to multiple
effects associated to omega-3 docosahexaenoic (DHA) and
eicosapentaenoic (EPA) fatty acids.
"Industry traditionally extracts omega-3 from
fish oil using processes that are energy intensive and use
"For example, Russia has a huge fishery equipped with state-of-the-art vessels, and
a huge fish processing industry. The country recommends
the world's highest daily inteake of omega-3 EPA and DHA: 1,300 mg, while
most countries recommend around 250 mg.
years ago, Anastasia Zaytseva,
a student at the the Arctic University of Norway, analyzed the
composition of 13 marine omega-3 supplements on Russian and Norwegian
markets. Have a look
at what she found out.
"In Sicily, an island with a large fishing fleet, we do not even
extract these valued molecules: we throw them away into the sewage in
their triglyceride form, and at times they invade the roads as happened
in a fisherman village near Palermo last year.
"Clearly, we need green
to expand and improve the production of omega-3
extracts, especially with the aim to obtain these essential
polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish
processing waste available in >20 million tonnes/year amount,
maximizing of benefits for all involved.
"The last an example of innovation in chemistry and physics applied to
the bioeconomy is the application of a technology that has been widely
progressed in your country and in India: hydrodynamic cavitation.
"We joined Professor Meneguzzo
in Florence to develop an entirely new
beer-brewing process using a simple Venturi tube
that produces cavitation within the wort, dramatically changing the
chemistry, the engineering, and the environmental footprint of the
process that produces brew.
"May I briefly remind that cavitation
produces tiny bubbles whose rapid collapse locally creates temperatures
of more than 1,000 Kelvin and pressures exceeding 5,000 bar.
"Cavitation pulverizes malted
barley within a few minutes thereby avoiding
the necessity for it to be dry milled. Furthermore, it
increases the rate at which starch passes from the pulverized malted
barley into the wort, so that washing of the malt to remove trapped sugar
and starch also becomes unnecessary.
"The transformation of starch into
simpler sugars now takes place at lower temperatures. No boiling is needed and the activation
temperature of enzymes drops by about 35 °C, shortening the time needed for
saccharification, while causing unpleasant
volatile gases to degas quickly.
"Finally, the beer obtained with this new process is practically gluten-free,
which is an extremely important finding as the number of
gluten-intolerant and caeliac patients across the world has reached unprecedented levels.
"Let me conclude with another example of
the ancient linkage between Palermo and Moscow. On
October 23, 1845, two powerful steam ships, the
Bessarabia, entered Palermo’s harbor after two days of navigation started
in Genua. The ships carried the Czarin Alexandra Fedorovna and
several components of Russia's court as the Czarin was going to spend 6
months in Palermo to enjoy the health benefits of the warm city climate. She
received the visit of the Czar, Nicholas I, and left in Sicily a great
The lectures were part of an intense scientific programme. Following a visit to the world renowned Labs of
, on June 8th, the Italian scholars met with Dr.
Prof. Sergey Osipov, Prof. Alexander Trofinov and Prof. Natalia Belkova
at the Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds. In the
afternoon, they met with
Dr. Alexey Sukhorukov, Dr. Anatoly Vereshchagin and Dr Elena Shubina. The
scientists offered an extremely interesting overview
of their recent work.
On June 9th, they met with Professor Irina P. Beletskaya, Russia's
academician and organic chemistry legend, at Lomonosov Moscow State University
discussing possible avenues of
cooperation. Editor-in-chief of The
Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry
offered also an inspirational overview of contemporary organic
After that, accompanied by another chemistry professor at Moscow University, they
visited the unique
and surroundings of
In the early afternoon, Italy's scholars were presented the outcomes of
their reseach by PhD candidate and post-graduate students
including Dmitry Eremin, Kirill Erokhin, Alexey Galushko, Evgeniya
Borkovskaya, Evgeniya Degtyareva and Sergey Yakukhnov.
RAS and Zelinsky Institute of Organic
Founded in Saint Petersburg by the Czar Peter the Great in 1774, the
Russian Academy of Sciences rapidly became the top scientific
institution of the world's largest country advancing basic and applied
knowledge in all fields of the sciences. After the Soviet period
during which it incorporated the name of the USSR
reconstituted as the Russian
Academy of Sciences
Named after eminent chemist Nikolay D. Zelinsky in 1953, ZIOC
center equipped with state of the art spectrometers and
electron microscopes in operation the whole
year, enabling advanced structural investigation of
and young researchers continuously contribute important
advances in all main journals in chemical science.
Along with academics
from Lomonosov Moscow State University
, the Institute
offers advanced university education which includes
experimental classes in research laboratories of the Academy's
institutes. Aiming at fostering and expanding
valuable contacts with leading
international R&D centers and
laboratories engaged in organic chemistry, catalysis and other areas of
chemistry, the Institute regularly invites outstanding foreign
and Russian scientists for lecturing, including a new educational project
part of which were
the lectures of Graham Hutchings, Paul Chirik and Mario Pagliaro.
M. Pagliaro, "The central role of chemistry in the transition to the solar economy", submitted
(2017); prepublished at: http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/rg.2.2.14253.08166